Trauma and Stressor-Related Disorders

The newest guide to diagnosing mental disorders is the DSM-5, released in 2013.[4] It lists the following Trauma and Stressor-related disorders:
Trauma and stressor-related disorders wordcloud

Complex Post-traumatic Stress Disorder is likely to be included in the International Classification of Diseases diagnostic manual, which is currently being revised. [2]
All these disorders result from a known cause of either traumatic or stressful situations, or events recognized explicitly in the diagnostic criteria.[1]:169

Reactive attachment disorder and Disinhibited social engagement disorder both result from social neglect during childhood (a lack of appropriate care-giving), and onset is during childhood. Posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder were moved out of the Anxiety disorders category because research showed that their presentation can vary and a wide range of different reactions may occur; they are not necessarily primarily fear- or anxiety-based reactions.[1]:170

Trauma and/or abuse are the only recognized causes of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. However, these disorders require the trauma to be a major trauma, sometimes referred to as a 'Type I trauma'. More minor traumatic experiences, sometimes called 'Type II trauma', (e.g., emotional abuse and physical neglect), are not considered severe enough to meet the present diagnostic criteria. [3] However, the role of multiple and more minor traumatic experiences is now being increasing recognized.

See also Trauma and Abuse
See also Living with trauma


  1. Black, Donald W. (2014) (coauthors: Grant, Jon E.). DSM-5 Guidebook: The Essential Companion to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. American Psychiatric Pub. ISBN 9781585624652.
  2. World Health Organization. (2014) International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Retrieved November 16, 2014, from
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association. ISBN 0890425558.

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